Making Governance Gender-Responsive

Twenty-one participants from Thailand, Indonesia, Laos and the Philippines joined the Gender and Governance Workshop held on 24 October 2005 at the Student Christian Center in Bangkok, Thailand. Primar Jardeleza and Olive Parilla (PATAMABA-Philippines) served as resource persons.

The workshop aimed to 1) identify gender problems and issues in informal work (in their respective communities); 2) explain the elements of an effective Gender and Development (GAD) Plan and Budget for their organizations and communities; and 3) identify steps towards making their organizations more gender-sensitive and eventually, towards formulating a Gender-Responsive Plan for 2006.

The opening ceremonies got everyone involved with the “Paper Folding” exercise where each participant was asked to explain the meaning of her/his creation. From the participants’ creative minds, various persuasions and symbolic meanings surfaced.

The 15 minute showing of “The Impossible Dream” was the take off point for identifying gender problems, issues, and manifestations of gender bias in society and in informal work. Dividing participants into country groups, their presentations revealed some commonalities: within the family, women assumed their traditional reproductive roles; in the community, women surprisingly, had time for organizational activities, despite their numerous tasks within the home; but women have more problems, because of the multiple roles that they assume.

The discussion on Why Gender Matters in Governance emphasized that good governance can only be attained if gender biases are addressed and eliminated. In gender-responsive governance, there exists: equality among women and men (access to resources, participation in decision making, sharing of benefits); respect for human rights; empowerment of women; and a transformative agenda. Its attainment, through the preparation of a GAD Plan and the GAD Budget, can be a potent advocacy tool and has its implications for social equity (how the pie is sliced and shared). The GAD Plan and Budget, translate political commitments and goals into reality, and reflect the government’ s social and economic priorities at various levels.

Homenet SEA participants to the Gender and Governance Workshop  held at the Christian Student Center,  Bangkok, Thailand on 24 October 2005.

May Evaluation Meeting in Bangkok

Representatives from the various Homenets in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand) met in Bangkok May 10-11 at the UNIFEM Regional Office in order to evaluate work in connection with the FNV-supported project “Strengthening the Network of Homeworker” which ends this year, to imagine the future in the next five years, and plot out the next steps.

Lucita S. Lazo, Regional Program Adviser for UNIFEM ESE-Asia led the evaluation meeting, assisted by UNIFEM Program Officer Amalin Sundaravej, and by Ana Lisa Magno who acted as documentor. Participants included Hesti Wijaya, Cecilia Susiloretno, and Judarman Soedarmo from Homenet Indonesia; Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo, Primar Jardeleza and Calixtra Patacsil from Homenet Philippines; and Rakawin Lee, Phan Wanabriboon, Orapin Vimol Pusit, and Sutaree Seng-Ging from Homenet Thailand.

Part of the main agenda was the review of the outcomes at both subregional and national levels of the project’s objectives:

  1. Strengthening home-based workers, their organizations and networks in Southeast Asia;
  2. Support for the development of policy frameworks and advocacy on key issues affecting homebased workers;
  3. Support for pilot approaches for the provision of social protection for homebased workers; and
  4. Promoting fair trade practices at the national level to ensure more favorable working conditions for women homebased workers.

It was acknowledged that although there were external constraints such as the lingering effects of the Asian crisis, the frequent changes in political leadership, the outbreak of SARs etc, as well as internal constraints such as delayed and inadequate funding and reliance on a few key leaders, there have been positive achievements in the last three years.

Homenet Southeast Asia has sustained subregional, regional, and global networking despite limited funds, holding subregional workshops, launching a news-magazine as well as a website, and commencing expansion work in Laos. Membership in all the national Homenets has increased substantially, and in the Philippine case, this has expanded to other workers in the informal economy. Numerous capability building activities for homeworkers in the areas of leadership, entrepreneurship development, occupational safety and health, computer connectivity, etc. have been conducted in the three countries. There have been increasing visibility and recognition through the mapping project in Indonesia, policy and implementation advances in terms of health insurance and occupational safety and health in Thailand; and progress in terms of informal workers’ representation, access to resources, social protection coverage, and local government initiatives in the Philippine case.

Three goals for next five years

Through a series of discussions, participants agreed on three major goals for the next five years.

Under the first major goal of “Strengthening the organization and the network of women homeworkers in Southeast Asia”, the following sub-goals were identified:

  1. Homeworkers will have their own organizations using bottom-up approach and thus empowering themselves (NGOs will play advisory capacity);
  2. They will have the capacity to run their own organization (including resource mobilization); and
  3. They will be able to represent themselves both at national and the international levels

The second major goal is “Economic security and rights – Building the economic sustainability of the homeworkers and their networks” Its sub- goals are:

  1. Employment promotion;
  2. Market access and development;
  3. Promotion of decent work;
  4. Fair price;
  5. Occupational safety and health and clean technology ;
  6. Gender respon-sive mainstreaming as well as application of rights based approach; and
  7. Right to social protection

Under the third major goal of “Political Rights, Governance and Participation”, participants men-tioned the following subgoals:

  1. Visibility for home worker;
  2. Legislation;
  3. Representation; and
  4. Influence on macro economic policies (national and international)

Next Steps for 2005-2006

Within the next two years, participants agreed that subregional initiatives will include: document-ation (i.e., sharing of best practices, tools, manuals, resources); knowledge building; cross border issues; capacity building on lobbying, advocacy, and networking; website management; exchange visits, developing e-commerce; a sub regional workshop on social protection; and strategic planning for marketing and distribution of homeworkers’ products.

There were plans to set up more formal policies, procedures, mechanisms to guide the operations of the subregional network. These would include formalizing membership to the network; clarifying decision-making and representation issues; and systematizing activities with annual plan-ning/assessments and dialogues. Crucial to the process would be the holding of annual coor-dination meetings with homeworker representation, including bi/triennial assembly with ten homeworker delegates per country and some NGO represen-tatives , possibly commencing in 2006.

Another issue to be tackled is the envisioned formation of Homenet Asia, with Homenet Southeast Asia and Homenet South Asia as its major wings.

Homenet SEA Participates in the NGO Lobby Effort In Hongkong

Homenet Southeast Asia succeeded in being accredited by the WTO as an NGO focusing on trade issues. This entitled the network to a number of official representatives to the WTO Ministerial Meeting held in Hongkong on January 13 -18, 2005. Representing Homenet SEA in the NGO Lobby Effort were: :Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo, Regional Coordinator; Olive Parilla of Homenet Philippines- PATAMABA (because if its long-term engagement in fair trade advocacy through its Oxfam Project); Hesti Wijaya, National Coordinator of Homenet Indonesia, and Orapin Wimolpusit, HomenetThailand (which has been concerned with fair trade since the beginning of the UNIFEM project in 2001).


What have the various Homenets in Asia accomplished in the last year, and what can we do together to hasten the formation of an Asia-wide network?

Members of the Asian Regional Coordinating Committee (ARCC) created under the UNIFEM-FNV Project entitled “Strengthening the Network of Homebased Workers in Asia” met at the UNIFEM Regional Office in Bangkok, Thailand, 28-29 July to review and assess the progress made covering the period September 2002 to June 2003, as well as to identify requirements for future actions.

Present during the meeting were Rakawin Lee, Homenet Southeast Asia and Thailand coordinator; Rosalinda ‘Inday’ sPineda Ofreneo, also of Homenet Southeast Asia, representing PATAMABA (Homenet Philippines); Hesti Wijaya of MWPRI, representing Homenet Indonesia; Renana Jevhala of SEWA and Homenet India; and Sapna Joshi of Homenet South Asia. Lucy Lazo, now UNIFEM East and Southeast Asia Regional Program Adviser and formerly the ILO Chief Technical Adviser for the subregional project on rural homebased workers in Southeast Asia, was also there to facilitate the meeting.

The various HomeNets reported activities, outputs, and outcomes based on the objectives of the UNIFEM-FNV project. HomeNet South Asia, which covers, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, shared their initial mapping results, their posters, publications and other accomplishments.

Strengthening HBW networks

In Indonesia, one major Homenet accomplishment was the formation and activation of the HWPRI or Association of Indonesian Women Homeworkers as a separate entity from the MWPRI but benefiting from its guidance. Homenet Indonesia also reported the conduct of a regional peer leadership training workshop; three regional coordination meetings covering six provinces from Central, East and West Java; and last but not least,.

PATAMABA (Homenet Philippines) took the following major strides: the holding of its fifth Congress; national strategic planning; organizational diagnosis and development; training on entrepreneurship and alternative skills development, leadership, organic farming, marketing and product promotion; and computer literacy and connectivity training involving basic computer use, e-mail and internet surfing, desktop publishing, and website development.

Homenet Thailand conducted a regional leadership training in the Northeast, as well as a meeting of the National Committee of the Network and Foundation.

Policy Advocacy on HBW Issues

In line with the goal of greater HBW visibility, Homenet Indonesia reported that the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) agreed to conduct a pilot survey on HBWs in Yogyagarta and Bali as a follow-up to the mapping project recently completed under UNIFEM auspices. The Department of Labour and Transmigration also agreed to lead the National Steering Committee on Homebased Workers together with Homenet Indonesia.

In the Philippines, PATAMABA, together with other advocacy groups of informal workers, succeeded in pushing for the approval of a country program for “Institutionalizing Programs and Projects for the Informal Sector through Local Governments” which is now being implemented in Angono, Rizal with PATAMABA participation. Advocacy for greater access to productive resources resulted in the approval of training cum production grants from the Department of Labor and Employment, now being implemented in five PATAMABA areas. It has participated in meetings and campaigns of the Fair Trade Alliance, Freedom from Debt Coalition, and Stop the New Round Coalition.

Homenet Thailand has had high visibility in advocating for occupational health and safety. It has spearheaded a National Workshop on Health and Safety and Health Insurance for Workers in the Informal Economy, and has participated in another workshop to work out the strategies for attaining the same.

Promoting and Piloting Social Protection Mechanisms

Homenet Thailand and Homenet Philippines succeeded in getting approval from the Ford Foundation for a research proposal entitled “Extending Social Protection to Homeworkers in Thailand and the Philippines: Analyzing, Evaluating, and Sustaining the Work in Progress and Drawing Lessons from the Experience.” This is a two-year project which involves surveys, focus group discussions, case studies and life stories, as well as national and subregional validation workshops. .

At the national level, PATAMABA has been actively campaigning since 2002 for HBW membership in the Social Security System (SSS) now 734; Philhealth, now 617; Red Cross now 491; and damayan (indigenous scheme), now 2,647. It is documenting and implementing innovative pilot social protection schemes, including registering and federating damayans in Bulacan province, as well as launching a land, housing, and community-based health micro-insurance scheme in Angono, Rizal with the support of the local government, ILO, and other stakeholders.

On the part of Homenet Thailand, it is following up its pilot health scheme in the North, and is collaborating with the Mahidol University as well as ILO for training informal workers on occupational safety and health. It is also working for legislation for the legal protection of informal workers.

Future Plans

The following directions of Homenet Southeast Asia for January 2003-2004 were agreed upon during the meeting:

Under Strengthening Networks

  1. Launch the subregional website in November 2003;
  2. Do strategic replanning for Indonesia and rebuild the national network ;
  3. Strengthen Homenet Southeast Asia coordination and planning for sustainability and succession;
  4. Explore and strengthen partnerships in Laos;
  5. Increase Homenet Southeast Asia presence and visibility through newsletters, posters, etc.

Under Policy Development and Advocacy

  1. Conduct a subregional workshop on social protection in the first half of 2004;
  2. Continue studies and set up mechanisms to monitor the impact of trade liberalization and globalization on HBWs;
  3. Create a pool of experts to assist in research and policy advocacy;
  4. Connect with ESCAP, ASEAN, and APEC;
  5. Link HBW concerns with other UNIFEM programs on VAW, HIV-AIDS, and migration.

Under Social Protection

  1. Monitor the impact of social protection schemes in Thailand and the Philippines;
  2. Review the situation on social protection in Indonesia.

Under Fair Trade

  1. Develop codes of conduct with private sector;
  2. Upgrade technical and management skills of HBWs and their organizations
  3. Create and strengthen trade groups.
  4. Establish linkages with organizations supporting fair trade practices, as well as with SEWA Trade Facilitation Center.

Towards an Asian HBW Network

The ARCC meeting also agreed to work towards the formation of Homenet Asia, with the drafting of a constitution and bylaws, and the convening of a meeting where all Homenets in Asia will be represented. This is tentatively scheduled third quarter of 2004 in India.

Sharing Mapping Results

Thirty one homebased workers (HBWs) and advocates from Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Philippines, Malaysia and India gathered in scenic Crown Peak Hotel, Subic, Zambales, Philippines to present the results of the mapping project and the analyses of the data collected; to exchange the lessons learned from the mapping exercise; and to plan for follow-up activities at the national and regional levels.

UNIFEM-ESE-ASIA, represented by Amalin Sundarajev (Program Officer), sponsored the two-day workshop convened by Homenet Southeast Asia on October 19-20 2002. Serving as keynote speakers were Carmelita Ericta, head of the Philippine National Statistical Coordination Board; and Lucy Lazo, then still Undersecretary of Labor.

In connection with the Asia-wide UNIFEM project “Strengthening the Network of Homeworkers”, Homenet Southeast Asia defined mapping “as an activity done in support of organizing homeworkers by obtaining baseline information in aid of identifying the appropriate entry points, interventions, approaches, and strategies as well as of designing action programs to promote their welfare and well being and in advocating policies for their social protection.”

While this definition gave the different networks the general framework by which the mapping activities were to be done, each had the freedom to determine the specific methodology, tools and techniques of data gathering that are appropriate to the situation and needs of the homeworkers and organizations. (Summaries of the Indonesian, Philippine and Thai presentations can be found in the succeeding pages).

Common Issues/Actions/Programs

Participants were divided into two groups and discussed their views on the common issues/ actions/ programs that they could pursue together at the sub-regional level. They also explored how Homenet SEA could help each country network and how each country could contribute to the activities (programs) and sustainability of Homenet SEA.

Among the issues they identified were invisibility, lack of access to resources (market, capital, technology, and support for organizing), and social protection.

To improve visiblity, the following were suggested: expanding and strengthening national networks; networking with other networks; coverage of more countries (e.g. Laos); representation at international level; campaign on national statistics; working more with media; publication of SEA Homenet newsletters; creation of videos and websites.

Suggested actions/programs to improve access to resources included product innovation and cataloguing, exchange of products, trade fair cum workshop on marketing, funders’ exposure to HBWs, development of website/ e-commerce, setting up of display centers, and exchange of products, skills, technologies and visits.

As regards social protection, suggestions were to hold campaigns at national and international levels (e.g., for the ratification of ILO Convention 177 on Homework), do baseline studies, convene a subregional workshop, conduct training on insurance and development of indigenous schemes, and exchange experiences on how to access social protection from government.